Haines & Maassen Metallhandelsgesellschaft mbH



Melting point

1526° Celsius yttrium

Specific weight

4.472 g/cm3

Abundance of element



silvery white

Atomic number


Boiling point

3336° Celsius

Purities available

Y2O3 99%

Forms available



0.5 kg - 50 kg units
small quantities on request

Buying yttrium

If you would like to buy yttrium oxide or find out our current yttrium oxide price please click here for our contact information. We would also appreciate your call at +49 228 946510.


Yttrium: Use

Metallic yttrium is used for tubes in reactor technology. An yttrium cobalt alloy can for example serve as a permanent magnet. In metallurgy slight additions of yttrium are used for grain refinement for instance in iron chromium heating conductor alloys as well as in chromium-, molybdenum, titanium and zirconium alloys. In aluminium and magnesium alloys it increases the strength. However, technically more important are the oxidic yttrium compounds. These can be found in gas mantles, laser crystals or in fuel cells. The most important application for yttrium oxides in combination with europium and thulium is however as fluorescent material in television picture tubes, fluorescent lamps and radar tubes.


Yttrium: History occurrence production

The name yttrium is based on Ytterby quarry near Stockholm where it was discovered in 1794 by Johan Gadolin as one of the components of the mineral ytterbite. In 1824 Friedrich Wöhler produced contaminated yttrium by reduction of yttrium chloride with potassium. Only in 1842 Carl Gustav Mosander achieved the separation of yttrium from its accompanying elements erbium and terbium.

Yttrium does not occur as a free element in nature. It can mainly be found in close relationship with other rare earth metals in mineral form. It can also be contained in uranium ores. Commercially mineable are monazite sands which contain up to 3% of yttrium.

Originally Brazil and India were the main producers of yttrium. Only with the opening of the Mountain Pass Mine in Californa the USA could claim this role for themselves. Large quantities of bastnäsite were mined there up to the 1990ies. After the closure of the mine China became the biggest producer for rare earths. These are mainly extracted from a mine near Bayan Kuang in the south of the country.

For 2009 the USGS estimated a global output of rare earths of about 124000 tons.